> HRNK 소식
PRESS RELEASE: HRNK and AllSource Analysis Launch Report Based on Satellite Imagery of North Korea’s Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, Jongo-ri
August 30, 2016


Tuesday, August 30, 2016


The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea (HRNK) and AllSource Analysis Launch Report Based on Satellite Imagery of North Korea’s Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, Jongo-ri

Report confirms expansion of detention facilities for women, overcrowded prison conditions and the continued use of prison labor. Report urges North Korean government to comply with the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, allow ICRC access, and improve the nutrition, workplace health and safety standards of prisoners.

The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea (HRNK), a non-governmental organization based in Washington, D.C. and AllSource Analysis, a leading global provider of high-resolution earth imagery solutions, have launched a report entitled North Korea: Imagery Analysis of Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, Jongo-ri. Although the detention facility was featured in the September 2015 report The Hidden Gulag IV: Gender Repression and Prisoner Disappearances by David Hawk, this is the first HRNK/AllSource Analysis satellite imagery report addressing a kyo-hwa-so.

The report calls upon the North Korean government to: improve the nutritional status of prisoners, many of whom suffer from severe malnutrition; improve health and safety standards at worksites where prison labor is present, in particular at the copper mine adjacent to Kyo-hwa-so No. 12; allow the ICRC immediate, full, and genuine access to this and all other detention facilities in the DPRK; comply with the Standard Minimum Rules for Treatment of Prisoners; and reduce water contamination resulting from the adjacent copper mine operated with prison labor.

Unlike the kwan-li-so political prison camps, the kyo-hwa-so re-education prison labor camps also detain common offenders, who are given actual prison sentences, held together with those sentenced for essentially political offenses. One feature that the kwan-li-so and the kyo-hwa-so have in common is the extreme brutality of the conditions of detention.

The report on Kyo-hwa-so No. 12 can be downloaded from HRNK’s website (HRNK.ORG), together with other HRNK publications. For this report, AllSource Analysis used pan-sharpened multispectral satellite imagery of Kyo-hwa-so No. 12 and its immediate environs collected by: DigitalGlobe, Airbus Defense and Space, and NASA’s EO-1 from July 12, 2003 through May 24, 2015; NASA’s Landsat from May 27, 1976 through June 6, 1984; and USGS declassified KH-4 from April 7, 1967.

Run by the North Hamgyong Provincial Bureau, under the Prisons Bureau of the North Korean Ministry of People’s Security, Kyo-hwa-so No. 12 is located about 490 km northeast of the capital city of Pyongyang, and approximately 25 km south of Hoeryong City. It consists of two primary facilities: a walled prison facility commonly known as “Jongo-ri;” and a copper mine situated in a small branch valley a short distance south of the prison facility. The walled prison facility measures approximately 188 meters by 128 meters (205 yards by 139 yards), encompasses 2,360 hectares (28,230 square yards), and is encased by three-meter high walls, four elevated guard positions, and two exterior entrances.

Kyo-hwa-so No. 12 was established between 1980 and 1983 in an area known for orchards, beans, potatoes, and corn farming and logging. Satellite imagery analysis confirms witness testimony that the camp has added light industry and mining to the economic activities performed by prisoners. Satellite imagery also confirms witness testimony that an annex to the compound was built in February – August 2009 to deal with an increase in the number of female prisoners. Satellite imagery acquired in June 2015 identified a total of 65 housing units immediately adjacent to the main walled prison compound, most likely meant for the camp’s managers, senior party officials, senior security officials and their families.

Kyo-hwa-so No. 12 prison population estimates have ranged from 1,300 in the late 1990s to about 5,000 in recent years. According to Joseph Bermudez, AllSource Analysis co-founder and chief analytics officer, “if the more recent figures are even close to accurate, then Kyo-hwa-so No. 12 is an overcrowded detention facility, judging by international standards.” Bermudez further added: “According to South Korea’s KINU, there is even a unit for undernourished prisoners at Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, which underscores that overcrowding and malnutrition are prevalent at this detention facility.”

Twenty percent of the prisoners are reportedly women. About 80% of the female prisoners are North Korean nationals forcibly repatriated from China. HRNK Executive Director Greg Scarlatoiu pointed out that “their detention highlights the illegality of China’s forcible repatriation of North Korean refugees to conditions of danger, despite overwhelming and justified fear of persecution, in direct violation of the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, to which China is a party.”

The report confirms sustained—if not increased—economic activity at Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, which is a trend identified through previous HRNK/AllSource Analysis satellite imagery reports on other detention facilities in North Korea. Scarlatoiu remarked that “the importance of prison labor at the adjacent copper mine, confirmed by satellite imagery analysis, continues to focus attention on the tainted supply chain of North Korea’s extractive industry.” Joseph Bermudez further added that, “given the condition of the waste pond and earthen dam erected from mine waste at the copper mine, and given the proximity to the nearby stream, it is very likely that the mining operation is contaminating the water downstream.” According to Bermudez, “such mining facilities recklessly operated with prison labor also pose a threat to the human security of those living downstream outside the camp, by polluting their water supply.”

The report is the latest step in a collaborative effort by HRNK and AllSource Analysis to create a clear picture of the evolution and current state of North Korea’s political prison camps and other detention facilities. HRNK is the NGO that put North Korea’s penal labor colonies on the map by publishing Hidden Gulag in 2003, Hidden Gulag Second Edition in 2012, North Korea’s Hidden Gulag: Interpreting Reports of Changes in the Prison Camps in 2013, and The Hidden Gulag IV: Gender Repression & Prisoner Disappearances in 2015, all authored by world-renowned investigator David Hawk. Gulag, Inc., authored by senior North Korean defector Kim Kwang-jin and published by HRNK in 2016, addressed the use of forced and prison labor in North Korea’s tainted extractive industry supply chain. Together, HRNK and AllSource Analysis have been closely monitoring North Korea’s political prison camps so that any attempts to distort the harsh reality of the camps by destroying evidence will not go unnoticed. In a speech given before the 7,575th meeting of the UN Security Council on December 10, 2015, U.S. Ambassador Samantha Power quoted some of the findings of The Hidden Gulag IV.

The report North Korea: Imagery Analysis of Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, Jongo-ri is available on HRNK’s website: http://www.hrnk.org/uploads/pdfs/ASA_HRNK_Camp12_201608_v10_LR.pdf.


Contact: Greg Scarlatoiu, executive director

executive.director@hrnk.org; 202-499-7973


Denied from the Start: Human Rights at the Local Level in North Korea is a comprehensive study of how North Korea’s Kim regime denies human rights for each and every citizen of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In doing so, this report examines human rights denial policies and practices. Local institutions are responsible for this denial at the schools, housing units, workplaces, and beyon

In this submission, HRNK focuses its attention on the DPRK’s— 

1. System of political imprisonment, wherein a multitude of human rights violations are evidenced, including enforced disappearance, amounting to crimes against humanity. 

2. Restrictions on freedom of movement, affecting women in particular, as evidenced in sexual violence, human trafficking, and arbitrary detention. 

3. Policy of social and political discrimination, known as “so

From Cradle to Grave: The Path of North Korean Innocents
Robert Collins and Amanda Mortwedt Oh
Nov 13, 2017

이 보고서는  기존의 연구와 로버트 콜린스(Robert Collins)의 이전 저작들을 기반으로 정치범 수용소에 방점을 두고 북한 정권의 공포정치의 사상적 기반과 제도적 구조를 설명하고 있습니다. 어떻게 북한 당국이 끊임없이 세뇌교육, 감시, 처벌을 통해 개개인의 삶을 요람에서 무덤까지 통제하는지 간략한 개관을 제공하고자 합니다. 특히, 이 보고서는 다음 질문들에 답하고자 합니다: 어떤 사회 정치적 및 법적 역학이 개인을 정치범 수용소로 이끄는가? 어떻게 의심의 여지없이 죄가 없는 북한 주민들이 정권의 관점에서  범죄자로 보여지는가? 어떻게 김씨 정권에 충성을 보였던 북한 주민들이 결국 정치범 수용소의 이름 없는 무덤으로 내몰리는가? 누가 이런 판단을 내리며 누가 이를 강제하는데 책임이 있는가?

The Parallel Gulag: North Korea's
David Hawk with Amanda Mortwedt Oh
Oct 26, 2017

이 책에서 데이비드 호크(David Hawk)는 이전에는 본 적 없던 추정되는 그리고 확인된 노동 교화 수용소의  모습을 제공합니다. 그는 안전부(현 인민보안성)가 통제하는 감옥 네트워크에 대해 밝히고 있습니다. 이러한 폭로는 2014년 유엔 북한인권 조사위원회(COI)가 묘사했던 것보다 더 만연한 수준의 고통을 보여주고 있습니다. 이 노동 수용소가 “일반적인 감옥”이라고 묘사됨에도 불구하고, 이곳에 갇힌 이들의 처우 중 “일반적인” 것은 아무것도 없습니다. 수감자와 정치범 처우 사이에 다른 점은 단지 “정도의 차이일 뿐 원칙적으로는 같습니다. 강제 노동과 의도적인 굶주림, 부족한 의료, 열악한 위생 상태를 결합한 정책은 매년 수천 명의 수감자들의 죽음을 낳고 있습니다.”

North Korea Camp No. 25 Update 2
Joseph S. Bermudez Jr., Andy Dinville, and Mike Eley
Nov 29, 2016

As part of a joint undertaking with HRNK to use satellite imagery to shed light on human suffering in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, more commonly known as North Korea), AllSource Analysis has been monitoring activity at political prison facilities throughout North Korea. This report details activity observed during the past

North Korea: Flooding at Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, Jongo-ri
Greg Scarlatoiu and Joseph S. Bermudez Jr.
Sep 16, 2016

The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea (HRNK), a non-governmental organization based in Washington, DC and AllSource Analysis, a leading global provider of high-resolution earth imagery solutions, have conducted a satellite imagery-based rapid assessment of flood damage at Kyo-hwa-so No. 12, Jongo-ri in Hamgyŏng-bukto, North Korea. Thousands of political prisoners are held in this re-education prison labor camp together with common offenders.